Finally, education has a large part to play in promoting positive attitudes as it pushes people to think about and try to understand things from another’s point of view. This can include people that have been detained under the mental health act or do not have the mental capacity to make decisions. Many children with learning disabilities now attend mainstream schools, which will result in future generations having a better understanding of the differences between individuals. Maintaining contact with family and friends, participating in cultural and community activities and using skills all contribute to social inclusion. The latter half of the 20th century saw more people moving from institutions to local communities and some individuals did have sexual relationships and have children, however the view of the general public was still one of concern. It is also a good idea to get into the habit of doing this yourself. Another example is when planning meals for an individual. There are several different types of advocacy available for people with learning disabilities. Do you believe that it’s not a good thing for some people? The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is the regulator for all health and social care services in England and ensure that policy and practice are performed correctly. This includes individuals that are disadvantaged by disability. Life in early institutions was often harsh and very difficult. social inclusion . that may indicate that they are either not listening or not understanding. The … First an foremost, health professionals should display a modern and positive attitude towards people with learning disabilities in their day-to-day practice. Understand the legislation and policies that support the human rights and inclusion of individuals with learning disabilities. The individual should remain at the heart of the advocacy service and the advocate should always act in their best interests. Explain the benefits of social inclusion for: >Individuals – >Communities – 3. Despite this, populations of hospitals continued to rise as many individuals were not aware of their choice or had been institutionalised and did not want to move. balance citizens’ rights and responsibilities. Many people with learning disabilities still suffered from a mixture of bullying and harassment on one extreme to over-protection, pity and restricted (if any) decision-making on the other. During the 1950’s, research suggested that individuals with learning disabilities had more ability than had previously been thought and would be able to live successfully and independently in the community. In fact, the primary reason for people being moved to institutions was because they were thought to be unable to contribute to society in a meaningful way. Take a few minutes to reflect on what you believe about people with learning disabilities and inclusion. As institutions closed and more individuals with learning disabilities merged with ‘mainstream’ communities, many services and groups catered specifically for these people. Examples of social inclusion for people with learning disabilities could include lack of finances, lack of suitable transport, lack of proper support or institutionalisation. There are a number of pieces of legislation and policies that have been designed for people with learning disabilities to promote: Firstly, the Equality Act 2010 protects individuals from discrimination, harassment and victimisation in society and supersedes previous anti-discrimination such as the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and Race Relations Act 1976. Understand how to support individuals during the last days of life: 3: 3: ... 1.3 Explain how practices that support equality and inclusion reduce the likelihood of discrimination ... Assess the individual in a health and social care setting Describe ways of checking whether an individual has understood a communication and how to address any misunderstandings. McConkey 207 Journal of Intellectual Disability Research doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00858.x pp – Variations in the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in supported living schemes and 3.5Describe ways of using a person centred approach to enable older people to make positive contributions to their community The … Healthcare for people with learning disabilities was provided by the doctors and nurses of the institutions that they were forced to live in during the 19th and early to mid 20th centuries. Understanding Social Inclusion, Social Cohesion and Social Capital Robert J. Oxobyy June 2009 Abstract The topics of social capital, social cohesion, and social inclusion are increasingly gaining interest in economics, sociology, and politics, particularly in regards to addressing poverty and designing related policies. Ability-appropriate language means adapting your words and sentences in accordance with an individual’s communication skills. These are the primary laws that directly relate to the freedoms and rights of individuals, however there is additional legislation that indirectly affects this including: Policies that promote human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities: When compared to the time before the legislation and policies listed above were introduced, we can surmise that the daily experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families have been positively and significantly influenced. Outcome 4 Understand the basic principles and practice of advocacy, empowerment and active participation in relation to supporting individuals with learning disabilities and their families. However, accommodation was primarily in the form of hostels and care homes/sub-communities. The Human Rights Act 1998 and Equality Act 2010 reinforced this. It is about enabling people or communities to fully participate in society. Typical causes are: The medical and social models of disability are contrasting ideas about the reasons for barriers to independence encountered by people with disabilities. In addition, they were seldom allowed to leave the grounds. Involving older people at all levels of service planning and delivery is an important part of getting it right. Active participation means supporting the individual to be engaged in their day to day life and their support rather than a passive receiver. Siblings may feel pushed out and jealous that their brother/sister appears to receive more attention than they do and not understand the reasons why. However, despite the good work, this had the negative side effect of maintaining segregation within society and creating mini-communities consisting of only individuals with learning disabilities and their care staff. The most important thing is to ensure that the individual feels involved in the process. Advocacy (provided by advocates) is an independent service that ensures that an individual has their say on issues that are important to them, input into their care provision and their rights defended. The 21st century has seen a shift in attitudes towards people with learning disabilities as these individuals are now much better integrated into society. It is essential that an advocate is wholly independent so that they can act in the best interests of the individual and do not have their own agenda or a conflict of interests. Many of these simply represent the lower end of the normal distribution of intelligence. It usually results from positive action taken to change the circumstances and habits that lead, or have led, to social exclusion. The attitude of the time was to keep these individuals segregated from the general population and those that did live in local communities were often treated with pity or disdain and suffered harassment and abuse. The Education (Handicapped Children) Act 1970 and Education Act 1981 made education a universal right and that all children should be taught in mainstream schools wherever possible. People with learning disabilities engaged in conversation with staff, children and members of the public. There is also the increased worry that the family may feel due to the individual possibly being vulnerable and easily-led – this can also lead to the individual being over-protected. Fortunately, this can easily be rectified with current and proper training and education. To support greater inclusivity, equality and diversity you need to know how to spot when it isn’t happening. Empowerment and active participation can be achieved by getting to know the people that you work with and understanding their likes, dislikes, hopes, dreams, needs and capabilities. The 50% proportion of learning disabilities with unknown cause has been floating around the Internet for a long time and is often accepted as an answer for the Level 2 Diploma but we have been unable to find the original source for this figure – do let us know if you can direct us to it. Social inclusion is defined by the Charity Commission as: Social inclusion is often used to describe the opposite effect to social exclusion. The Human Rights Act, Equality Act and Care Act have helped people to understand that disability does not mean an individual has any less rights than anybody else and that it is unlawful to discriminate on this basis. It is not appropriate to talk to them as you would a child as this can come across as rude and patronising. This is the desired outcome for most people and training can be provided to help individuals with learning disabilities gain the skills they need to self-advocate. Legislation is the collection of laws that have been made official by parliament and must be followed. So, by promoting empowerment and active participation as part of your work, you can support individuals with learning disabilities to maximise their opportunities and achieve their true potential. This includes (amongst others) the right to life, the right to a fair trial and the freedom from slavery and forced labour. Similarly, there is the right to not be tortured in an inhuman or degrading way, which means people with learning disabilities should not be forced to live in poor conditions or suffer from neglect. 9 What social inclusion means in Oxfordshire Age-appropriate language means using words that are suitable for a particular age group. al., 2010, p. 169–170). They have the right to close down services that are not up to scratch. It also opens opportunities to make and share experiences with others in the local community that face similar challenges. The Equality Act 2010 (and Disability Discrimination Act 1995 before it) made it unlawful for activity providers to discriminate against people with learning disabilities. Van Asselt et al. An important part of effective communication is ensuring that an individual has understood what you have said to them. Providing person-centred active support is as easy as standing behind your client when they pay for items to make them feel at ease and in control. Having a family member with a learning disability can have a significant impact on those around them, both positively and negatively. When supporting individuals with learning disabilities, it is important to build empowerment and active participation into your day-to-day practice. It means that support staff must assume that individuals have the capacity to make all their decisions unless it can be proven to the contrary. This trend increased further after the introduction of the Care Act 2014. This has led to much more collaboration, choice and independence for individuals. It is their responsibility to set the laws that are the foundation of society. Neglecting to do so can lead to criminal prosecution, as can subjecting an individual to abuse, which will be treated as a hate crime. The Human Rights Act set out the basic rights that everybody can expect, the Equality Act made it illegal to discriminate against minority groups and the Care Act gave individuals more choice in their care packages leading to increased independence. Individuals did not have any choice about the healthcare they received. Sadly, in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries many people with learning disabilities were grouped together in institutions or colonies where their basic needs were met but they had very little opportunity to develop or contribute to society. The bio-psychosocial model is useful to understand the support that spinal cord injured young people, their families and schools may need to ensure to full inclusion in mainstream education. It was still common practice to force patients to take medication. The negative aspects of using the label ‘learning disability’ are: Positive attitudes towards individuals can be promoted using a variety of strategies. Instructed advocacy is when an individual tells their advocate what they would like them to say and do. Learning outcome 1: Understand approaches that enable individuals with dementia to experience wellbeing Individual • Someone requiring care or support; it will usually mean the person or people supported by the learner. Early institutional life often meant that men and women with learning disabilities were segregated and did not have the opportunity to form intimate relationships with one another. In 1948, the NHS took responsibility for the institutions and they were changed to ‘hospitals’ however the practices and services remained pretty much the same although Mental Health Officers were appointed to work with individuals outside of hospitals. Increased exposure and communication between different groups of people can create more tolerance, empathy and understanding. An individual may use one or more of them at different times in their lives depending on their personal needs and circumstances. Therefore, it is important that the pedagogical strategies we employ in the classroom reflect an understanding of social identity development so that we can anticipate the tensions that might occur in the classroom and be proactive about them’ (Ambrose et. Sadly, it was rarely enforced and the disabled register was inaccurate. Understand the legal and policy framework underpinning an individual’s right to make decisions and take risks 4. This is when a family member or close friend helps an individual to make a decision or makes a decision on their behalf. Policies are rules and guidelines that have been created by your organisation or industry bodies to ensure that workers behave and do their jobs in their correct way. They make sure you’re heard and are called advocates. Nowadays, people are much more person-centred and understand that individuals are the experts in their own care. And the right to marry and start a family means that people with learning disabilities are no longer regarded as not having the capacity to have intimate relationships and have children. A learning disability is a broad term that encompasses many different conditions such as Down’s Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome and can be classed as mild, moderate or severe.

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