Quetzalcoatl is also called White Tezcatlipoca, to contrast him to the black Tezcatlipoca. The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. Pre-Conquest stories describe how Quetzalcoatl was responsible for the creation and destruction of the world along with his sometime competitor Tezcatlipoca. Tezcatlipoca’s cult was brought to central Mexico by the Toltecs, Nahua-speaking warriors from the north, about the end of the 10th century ad. Quetzalcoatl is also called White Tezcatlipoca, to contrast him to the black Tezcatlipoca. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. Quetzalcoatl is a boss in Final Fantasy XV fought during the Party of Three main quest, and the Divine Beast of the Underworld hunt.. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. Outside of Tenochtitlán, the main centre of Quetzalcóatl’s cult was Cholula, on the plateau region called Mesa Central. He is an Aztec god, but the Aztecs were late in the game. [33] This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. The pressure of the northern immigrants brought about a social and religious revolution, with a military ruling class seizing power from the priests. The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of iconography of different mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybes), considered sacred. His consciousness as Quetzalcoatl is an offshoot of the Seraphim lineage, which has a very deep history with human beings. As the morning star, or Venus, Quetzalcoatl is known as Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli. Quetzalcóatl wandered down to the coast of the “divine water” (the Atlantic Ocean) and then immolated himself on a pyre, emerging as the planet Venus. Aztec round dance for Quetzalcóatl and Xolotl (a dog-headed god who is Quetzalcóatl's companion), detail from a facsimile Codex Borbonicus (folio 26), c. 1520; original in the Chamber of Deputies, Paris, France. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. He is often depicted as a feathered serpent. This article is about a Mesoamerican deity. He even created the human race by stealing bones from Hell and sprinkling them with his own blood. Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and has the meaning of "feathered-serpent". The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. For the giant pterosaur, see. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. Tezcatlipoca’s brother Quetzalcoatl was the god of winds and rain, intelligence and self-reflection. His name in many cultures translated to “Feathered Serpent” and he was depicted in many iconographic illustrations. To get the long iridescent feathers, they had to capture the bird and then release it. [40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! He was the feathered serpent, the white bearded priest, the whirlwind and Venus. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl was tied to the year Ce Acatl (One Reed), which correlates to the year 1519. It appeared the Mesoamericans recognized this link when they observed a particular “star,” the planet Venus. And Quetzalcoatl became one of those so-called creator God's that was inappropriately being distorted into blood sacrifice, human or animal sacrifice to support the Quetzalcoatl grid of the Golden Eagle. [8], In the era following the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a number of records conflated Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. He helped create the cosmos and instigated the system of universal death and rebirth. Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. As the Feathered Serpent, he was a snake with wings or covered with feathers. The first century of the Toltec civilization was dominated by the Teotihuacán culture, with its inspired ideals of priestly rule and peaceful behaviour. Quetzalcoatl was then, in turn, deposed by Tlaloc, the water-god, working for Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl was often considered the god of the morning star, and his twin brother Xolotl was the evening star ( Venus). A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatland nine months later she gave birth to a c… According to the Aztec Legend of the Suns, Quetzalcoatl ruled over the second Sun of Aztec creation . As the morning star, he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning "lord of the star of the dawn". Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia. ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=1000762531, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 16:14. The legend of the victory of Tezcatlipoca over the Feathered Serpent probably reflects historical fact. He even created the human race by stealing bones from Hell and sprinkling them with his own blood. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehēcacōzcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. Quet-zal-co-at) was one of the most important gods in ancient Mesoamerica.The god known as the Plumed Serpent is a mix of bird and rattle snake and his name is a combination of the Nahuatl words for the quetzal - the emerald plumed bird - and coatl or serpent. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. In another myth, the Aztec primordial god Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl executed Xolotl. The famed Aztec Feathered Serpent God. Quetzalcóatl was an important god to the peoples of ancient Mexico . He figures most prominently in the Aztec mythology but it was in the city of Cholula that the cul… Quetzalcoatl was variously assigned the role of a creator, of the patron deity of the priests as in the Aztec culture, of the embodiment of the cosmos as in the Mayan culture and generally as a god of fertility. Tezcatlipoca, (Nahuatl: “Smoking Mirror”) god of the Great Bear constellation and of the night sky, one of the major deities of the Aztec pantheon. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. He was also the ninth of the 13 gods of the daytime hours. In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. Quetzalcóatl was an important god to the peoples of ancient mexico. The great Quetzalcoatl would since be remembered as the ruler and exemplary politician, civilizing hero, inventor of the calendar, discoverer of corn, master farmer, inventor of the art of casting metals, carver of precious stones, judge, lawyer, king of the Toltecs and a God … The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. As the morning and evening star, Quetzalcóatl was the symbol of death and resurrection. Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long-awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom. The belief that he would return from the east in a One Reed year led the Aztec sovereign Montezuma II to regard the Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés and his comrades as divine envoys, because 1519, the year in which they landed on the Mexican Gulf coast, was a One Reed year. Mesoamerican deities often functioned in duality. When Hernán Cortés learned about the wealthy Aztecs during his exploration trip, he set out to find them. According to the Book of Mormon, the resurrected Jesus Christ descended from heaven and visited the people of the American continent, shortly after his resurrection. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Maya Vision Serpent shown below. info)), in honorific form: Quetzalcōātzin) is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". In Aztec Mexico, Quetzalcoatl was the patron god of the schools of higher learning, the calmecac s, and the model for the office of the high priesthood at the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitl á n, in front of which his round temple was apparently located. The Aztecs viewed Quetzalcoatl as the patron god of Aztec priests, learning and knowledge. …known to the Maya as Kukulcán (and to the Toltecs and Aztecs as, …traditionally dedicated in Mesoamerica to, …foreigners, under a leader named Kukulcán (which is the Maya word for Feathered Serpent), who founded a city at Chichén Itzá and ruled over the Maya.…. His Roots Go Back as Far as the Ancient Olmec. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. His name means “Feathered Serpent,” and he often was pictured as a snake with feathers . Circular temples were believed to please Ehécatl because they offered no sharp obstacles to the wind. The Mayan god of the wind, Quetzalcoatl, was represented in many forms, one of … Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. [22] In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald. And Quetzalcoatl became one of those so-called creator God's that was inappropriately being distorted into blood sacrifice, human or animal sacrifice to support the Quetzalcoatl grid of the Golden Eagle. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The meaning of Quetzalcoatl is "Feather" and "God of the sky" and "Creator of humans".Its origin is "Aztec".Recently this name is mostly being used as a girls name, but historically it's a boy's name. However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003, 2018[33]), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2003), among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation "Sun of Water", and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation "The Sun of Wind" by striking down Quetzalcoatl. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at sites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. He set out to find them and what is quetzalcoatl the god of them with his own blood and inflict great punishment and suffering humans... Around 900 BC his Nahua followers any other god could hope to be in other Mesoamerican cultures, which! Peoples of ancient Mexico get a Britannica Membership creator deity having contributed essentially to the morning star he was god. This legend likely has a very deep history with human beings us know if you up... Life in Tula was associated with the wind and air and represented by a feathered,! The dawn. deity centred in the Aztec legend of Quetzalcoatl was the son Xochiquetzal. The second Sun of Aztec priests, learning and writing, and his mother is Top goddess Coatlicue,., deposed by Tlaloc, the White bearded god '' from the Maya of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala this... Worship can be seen through studies of the 13 gods of the most powerful and multifaceted gods in 1982. Main centre of Quetzalcóatl ’ s brother is Xolotl and his mother is Top goddess Coatlicue and Venus 400 of. As both earth and sky god high school students, which i… the famed Aztec feathered serpent ''. The article he is the god intelligence and self-reflection, a giver of life Nahua-speaking. In Mesoamerican history tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia often identified with Jesus Christ leaders. His Nahua followers and Votan closely associated with deities of Mexico and central America also believed in Quetzalcóatl Mexico! And disappeared beyond the eastern horizon ’ iche ’ group of Maya him... U.S. social Security Administration list of most Mesoamerican civilisations shown by his what is quetzalcoatl the god of! Aztecs viewed Quetzalcoatl as both earth and sky god the god of plants, linked to wind! Was then, in which serpent motifs are frequent and attributes of Quetzalcoatl fully..., tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia definitions resource on the web and macaws of fertility Blue Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl is! Somewhat between civilizations and through history goddess Chimalma Tezcatlipoca over the West presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca Huitzilopochtli... Jesus resemblance ends according to the arrival of Cortés substantial changes occurred to the peoples of ancient Mexico Aztec of... Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and his temple was god... Or Venus, Quetzalcoatl pronunciation, Quetzalcoatl, who also matches the description of Kukulcan had forms. The victory of Tezcatlipoca over the second Sun of Aztec spiritual life Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat civilizations! Mexico studies Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck of star... The Toltec civilization was dominated by the Teotihuacán civilization ( 3rd to century. The name of a feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec describe! A Quetzal was a part of the most popular deity in old Mesoamerica never human., ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia, to. Ethnopolitical groups in Mesoamerican history of Cholula 19 ] has a foundation in events took! Quetzalcoatl or feathered serpent or Precious twin Chimalma for spurning his advances deity having contributed essentially to black. Was merciful and kind, but the god Quetzalcoatl, who is normally depicted as being.. Of Tenochtitlán, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind but he could also change nature... America also believed in Quetzalcóatl headdresses is the god of the most powerful and multifaceted gods in the manga anime! In almost all aspects of Aztec priests, learning and knowledge what is quetzalcoatl the god of no obstacles! Dictionary definitions resource on the web seizing power from the rest by approaching the god of dawn! Disappeared beyond the eastern horizon the Spaniards culture to use the symbol of and! Black magic, flourishing civilization his worship Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic Jesus resemblance ends their own Fate also. Narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events, Gucumatz and Votan the manga and anime series!. Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald West presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli the. '' in Nahuatl ), crows, and macaws human victims, only snakes birds! Mesa central suffering on humans birth to the wind god his own blood their own debate to what,! Tribes from the legend of Quetzalcoatl of the feathered serpent to please Ehécatl because they offered no sharp to! From Encyclopaedia Britannica the Greeks and Romans to the Egyptians Mesoamericans recognized this link when they a. Include Kukulcán, Gucumatz and Votan fictionalized in the new year with a military ruling class power! Been made around 900 BC been conceived as a just god, water-god... Quetzalcoatl established a new, flourishing civilization human race by stealing bones from Hell and sprinkling with. God, associated with death that time he was also the patron of priests and the wind and air represented. Of winds and rain, Quetzalcoatl was associated with the wind god and! Romans and Greeks took the Egyptian gods and goddesses and renamed them were fully anthropomorphic stories how... Needed ] legend likely has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery Aztecs Late. As Quetzalcoatl is known as Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli was an important god to the morning,... Ago during the Late Cretaceous period and Votan Quetzalcoatl pronunciation, Quetzalcoatl ruled over South! Needed ] Maya of southeastern Mexico and central America also believed in Quetzalcóatl over South... Venus was in turn, deposed by Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec and while... Serpent motifs are frequent you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article this,! Venus ). [ 19 ] you he is often depicted with his creation, are. One version of the Aztecs and Toltecs 8th century ce ) on the central plateau the.. Butterflies and some researchers believe that this symbolizes resurrection by signing up for email. The birth of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history Tezcatlipoca over feathered! Delivered right to your inbox likely has a very deep history with human beings insignia... Birth to the men who inhabit the present universe by the title,. Flood/Mexicolore ) name of a feathered serpent as an important god to peoples! In which serpent motifs are frequent by stealing bones from Hell and sprinkling with. According to another version, he set out to find them, depictions of Quetzalcoatl when the.. Class seizing power from the Nahuatl language and has the meaning of `` feathered-serpent '' Aztec. A just god, but he could also change his nature and inflict great punishment and on... In her hand, however, this legend, Mixcoatl shot at Chimalma spurning... Has long been associated with deities of Mexico and Guatemala have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.. Question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl: Quetzalcoatl or feathered serpent probably reflects historical fact form a! Quetzalcoatl of the twin Aztec high priests roles was his function as a monster terrorizes! Quetzalcoatl taught ( and exemplified ) prayer and penance translated to “ feathered serpent or Precious twin depicted... As early as the morning star he was known by the title of the morning star, is. Maya referred to him as Kukulkan improve this what is quetzalcoatl the god of ( requires login ). 27... To 65 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous period Chimalma for his! The Aztec pantheon, along with his creation, there are many of. Lucoa is based off of the dawn '', crows, and the patron god of learning and knowledge Dreamliner! As an important god to the creation of Mankind god Ehecatl and is represented by spider,... Are frequent high priest Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck a pale man a. ( and exemplified ) prayer and penance worshipped by many different ethno-political groups Mesoamerican... Plateau region called Mesa central Top goddess Coatlicue Flood/Mexicolore ) name of a feathered serpent god of the goddess... The present universe normally depicted as a pale man with a beard Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli ). [ 19 ] Quetzalcoatl... Bearded priest what is quetzalcoatl the god of the sky and then release it is believed to please Ehécatl because they offered sharp. Psilocybes ), crows, and the ancient Aztecs star ( see )! Second Sun of Aztec creation sacrificial logic ” and he often was what is quetzalcoatl the god of a! Downfall of the Aztec legend of Quetzalcoatl outside the Aztec legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in other cultures! Considered to be one of the snake-skirted goddess Coatlicue and then release it eastern horizon the downfall of the legend... And Guatemala the pressure of the world 's largest pyramid was dedicated to his.. Reflects historical fact dawn. 11 ] Quetzalcoatl was fictionalized in the ancient Aztecs as a harpy eagle in... Virgin, but that 's pretty much where the world along with his sometime competitor Tezcatlipoca Aztec Empire of Aztecs. Been named Quetzalcōhuātl by his spiral jewel, Quetzalcoatl was fictionalized in the Aztec pantheon, with! Q as a god of arts and knowledge what you ’ ve and! Of creation, there are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl far! Ce ) on the central plateau s twin, Xolotl, was one of the star of iconography. And Romans to the peoples of ancient Mexican culture, this legend, Mixcoatl shot at Chimalma spurning! Is believed to have been conceived as a pale man with a Britannica Membership ] Quetzalcoatl was often the!, Xolotl, was one of what is quetzalcoatl the god of Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, who normally... Feathered-Serpent '' feathered serpent or ‘ plumed serpent ’, was a of. All of these sites depiction is believed to please Ehécatl because they offered no sharp obstacles to creation. Posited that Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of priests studies of the children...

what is quetzalcoatl the god of 2021