). All these irregularities with the plurals naturally lead to a system where each class is treated as a separate gender, instead of alternatives where the first twelve classes are grouped into six genders. Class 2a is the plural class for class 1a. autobiography, automobile. Rule: 2-Suffix Rules-Verb to Adjective. Odd numbers refer to a class expressing singular, even numbers to a class expressing plural. Suffixes are used to change the grammatical function of an existing word. Noun prefix system. The null noun class prefix is fairly common in Sesotho (Ziesler & Demuth, 1995). Manufactured products, natural or built places, abstract or concrete concepts B). Class 1 (the "animate/human" class[5]) contains most human nouns and is the default class for verbal agents (actors), which end in the vowel ⟨i⟩.[6]. Except for class 2a, the prefixes of the non-locative classes are null ("low") toned, while the set of possible tone patterns for the stem is large and obviously dependent on its length. Rule: 6-Opposites of the following words using suitable prefixes. demonstrative pronoun. The class prefix is mo- and comes from original Proto-Bantu *mu-. Also, morena (king), has a plural in class 6. Class 4 contains the plurals of class 3 nouns. Definition and synonyms of prefix from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education.. In the Bantu languages, nouns form an open class with new nouns regularly and actively being created from nouns and other parts of speech through predictable methods. Noun Prefix System. An easy example would be the word ‘prefix’ itself! Step: 7-suffix and prefix exercises It begins with the prefix pre-( which means ‘before’. The class prefix is me- and comes from original Proto-Bantu *mi-. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix.[2]. Noun Class Prefix Questionnaire – version 1.3 (prepared by Tarald Taraldsen in collaboration with Ken Safir) Introduction: This questionnaire is designed to elicit an inventory of the noun class affixes in your language and to detect patterns in the morphology of these affixes and to identify the forms that are used in the contexts where they are used to express agreement. Foreign (non-Bantu nor Khoisan) acquisitions, [dibɑtʼɑkʼiˌdipʰɔ'ɔfɔlɔt͡sʼet͡sʼʷɑnɑŋ̩lɪboditʼɑ'ulebomɑŋɑ'uʒʷɑloʒʷɑlo], The Sotho–Tswana languages lack the high toned pre-prefix/augment that appears in the nouns of many other languages. The second strategy is much less common and creates nouns indicating actions by first replacing the final vowel with [ɪ'ɔ] -eo before applying the nasalization. Rule: 3-Suffix Rules-Making Adverb. Shimizu’s reconstructions of Proto-Jukunoid nominal roots and the classes they belonged to (1980b, 1980c) might give a hint to the former class membership of Bezen nouns. It is not obvious whether an initial vowel constitutes a prefix, or whether the vowel is part of the root, and there is no noun class prefix. For example, the prefix non- can mean ‘not’ or ‘opposite.’. Problems arise when the incorrect prefix is placed before the root word. Shona noun classes are a system of categorizing nouns on the basis of the prefix used when the noun is in the same sentence as a determiner, adjective, verb in past tense or a verb in third person. Prefix and Suffix for Class 4 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples PDF. Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. What's the noun for prefix? (biology) Initial treatment of tissue with a fixative, as a preliminary to the application of another fixative or to the use of a different treatment. Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. It is less common in other related languages such as SiLozi, which belongs to the Sotho group of languages, and does not occur in other Bantu languages such as Kiswahili (Carstens, 1991 & 1993) and isiZulu (a Nguni language) adult speech (Demuth, 1988). ‘noun class systems’ (in particular those found in Niger-Congo lang uages) do not belong to a type different from the systems traditionally designated as gender systems. The noun mokotla 'bag' in (2), on the other hand, becomes unacceptable when used without the prefix. Bantu languages are often said to have sentences which are "centred around the noun" due to the striking nature of the noun concordance system. Nouns belong to a multitude of different classes, and they can be identified as belonging to those classes by the noun class prefix marker that they take. Examples of Correct Usage. It contains proper names of people, kinship terms, as well as the names of some animals and plants. When certain high toned formatives (the conjunctive le-, the locative ho-, the possessive concord, and the subjectival concord for noun classes when forming positive copulatives) are prefixed to a noun with tonal pattern [ _ _ ] for the first two syllables including the noun prefix, the noun prefix's tone becomes high giving pattern [ ¯ ¯ _ ]. Class 7 (the "special quality" class[5]) is fairly homogeneous in content and also contains the names of the languages or cultures of various societies. Nouns, like adjectives or verbs, can be formed using prefixes. heterogeneous aspect of the noun class system, which involves different dimensions of analysis. Many class 1 words have a tendency of misbehaving, but we know that they belong to class 1 because of their concords. This is done by a set of concords whose forms loosely resemble the noun prefixes. relative concord. This class is usually used for foreign loanwords referring to inanimates that do not fit easily into the noun class system, because the singular does not necessarily require a prefix and the plural form is the same as the singular form, although they are often given Ma class concords and the ma-plural by many speakers. Foods, fruits, and vegetables The N-N noun class has many noun words borrowed from English. Some N class words may also take a Ma class … The noun lesela 'cloth' in (1) remains acceptable whether used with or without the prefix. Some prefix words are as follows. Read More; Bantu languages. labeled class F ,6 whose characteristics include a prefix fʊ - ~ fu- ~ f- for nouns (depending on the presence/absence of a consonantal onset, and on vowel harmony), and the sam e prefix fʊ - ~ fu- ~ f- for attributive adjectives. The class prefix is exactly the same as that of class 1, but the two classes use different concords. Rule: 4-Suffix Rule-Noun or Adjective to Verb. the variant oo- of the noun class prefix u- in Yukuben, but he does not explain the variation and considers it as an allomorphic phenomenon. Zulu (isiZulu) noun class reference chart. Noun suffixes in English! Noun class Noun example-a prefix-zuri prefix-eusi prefix amba-suffix'-o' rejeshi affixes; M-Wa: Mpishi-Wapishi: wa-wa: mzuri-wazuri: mweusi-weusi: ambaye-ambao: aliye-walio: Ji-Ma: Dirisha-Madirishala-ya: zuri-mazurijeusi-meusi: ambalo-ambayo: lililo-yaliyo: Ki-Vi: Kikombe-Vikombe: cha-vya: kizuri-vizuri: cheusi-vyeusi: ambacho-ambavyo: kilicho-vilivyo: M-Mi: Mwiko … Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. and class 9. For example, the prefix non-can mean ‘not’ or ‘opposite.’ Adding non- to the word ‘sense’ gives you the word ‘nonsense’, which means words that have no meaning.. She lives in a sub division outside of a large city. The new word is often the opposite in meaning to the original word. One interpretation of these actor nouns is that they are formed by a, This is simply due to the shapes of the words (most class 9 Sesotho words do not show an overt prefix) and not because of semantics. ; Category:Zulu words by prefix: Zulu words categorized by their prefixes. That is a bunch of nonsense. Noun Suffixes : Can we add -ness to all types of words to make nouns?-ness (nouns from adjectives)-ness is one of a number of noun suffixes. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. Noun Prefixes - Class OneZulu GrammarZulu Language Lessons - Weekly lessons to help you master spoken Zulu. A common noun refers to any and every person or thing of the same kind or class, not to a particular person or thing: cow, dog, girl, boy, man, woman Common nouns Proper nouns girl Latha dog Rover man Aslam 1.4.3 Collective nouns A collective noun is the name of a collection, group of people, or things of the same kind: class, team, government jury, federation 1.4.4 Material nouns … Mistakes occur when the incorrect prefix is used. Note that the use of dashes to separate their parts is also irregular and usually based on the popularity and utility of the noun, and the Lesotho and South African orthographies tend to differ (with the Lesotho orthography tending to prefer dashes more). Class 2 is the plural class for class 1. Class 1 The semantic classifications of class 1 is personal names, names of relationships, occupations, animals, and nominalisations of verbs. Back to isiZulu page. emphatic/ absolute pronoun. As in many other languages, compounds indicating possession (genitive compounds) may be formed by following the possessee with the possessor ("X of Y" become "X-Y" — the English equivalent is "Y's X" or "Y-X"). It uses exactly the same concords as those of class 15. The noun class dictates the prefix, the modifier, the prefix on the adjective, and the pronoun used. Noun Classes 11 to 13, and 19 to 23 do not occur in Sesotho, but do occur in other Bantu languages (, Most abstract nouns can be created by substituting, Proper names based on nouns belong to class 1a, no matter what the original class was, Often parents assume the names of their children by prefixing the name with, Most nouns can form new nouns with the diminutive suffixes. These nouns were shown with the singular class prefix –i, which is ambiguous between class 5 and class 9. dis-reverse … mostly human nouns including nouns of kinship. A prefix is a letter or a group of letters that appears at the beginning of a word and changes the word’s original meaning. The strongest trend (which is basically a rule) is that all class 1 nouns are human, and non-human nouns that begin with the mo- prefix are therefore in class 3 (in fact, there are no human class 3 nouns in Sesotho). Note that for almost all nouns with stems of two or more syllables the syllabic nasal does not appear but the stem is still nasalized. The Sesotho locative adverbs of place are the demonstrative pronouns of this class. if the noun is singular ( one) or plural ( many). non-technically). We recognise the following tone patterns of Zulu noun stems identified by Cope (1970:120-121): /LL/; /LH/; /HL/; and /FL/. Note that language and culture names, as well as abstract nouns, do not have plurals. This may also be done with the descriptive possessive. Because of this, I'd always use the 'suffix' for test classes and the prefix for test methods: the MyClass test --> MyClassTest test the calculate method --> testCalculate() … the next even numbered class). Lingala (as is true of a number of African languages) makes changes not to the suffix – or end – of a word, but rather to the prefix – or start – of a word. Class: Prefix: Description: Example: 1: Um: Singular; Personal nouns only: Um + ntu = Umntu = A person; Umhlobo = friend: 2: Aba: Plural of Class 1: Aba + ntu = Abantu = People; abahlobo = friends: 1a: U: Singular; Personal proper nouns; Kinship terms; Some personal nouns; A few animals; Miscellaneous: U + bhuti = Ubhuti = Brother; UJohn = John; Unomadudwane = scorpion: 2a major challenge posed by noun classes in Moro concerns the status of vowel-initial nouns. In (7b) with NC stems, however, the nasal is found on the noun in isolation as well in the possessive construction demonstrating conclusively that the N is not a prefix. Noun Prefixes - Class OneZulu GrammarZulu Language Lessons - Weekly lessons to help you master spoken Zulu. Certain Sesotho nouns show evidence of originally being connected with this class: The use of this term in Bantu linguistics means "formatives placed in the middle of a word" and not the more common "formatives placed in the middle of a. The tool design also handles post . auto-self. In Shona this translates to "vasikana vaka naka". Shona noun classes are a system of categorizing nouns on the basis of the prefix used when the noun is in the same sentence as a determiner, adjective, verb in past tense or a verb in third person. Affixes attached to the beginning of Zulu words. These prefixes are drawn from a limited set of morphemes, which serve as overt markers of a noun’s class. Many nouns can be derived from other nouns, usually through the use of suffixes. Like class 1 the prefix appears as mm- before stems beginning with ⟨b⟩ in standard Sesotho. This class also contains many abstract nouns derived from nouns in other classes. The following is a list of noun suffixes for practicing spelling, along with their meanings and examples. Others, such as [lɪlɑpʼɑ] lelapa ('family') are often rendered without the prefix even when not followed by any prefixes ("at my/the home" is always [lɑpʼeŋ̩] lapeng). However, if gender as a morphosyntactic notion is defined as a particular type of nominal classification in which a … class 1 *ú-mu-, class 2 *á-ba-, class 4 *í-mi-, class 9 *í-N- etc.) Class 10 contains the plurals of class 9 nouns as well as the plurals of some class 5 nouns (from Proto-Bantu class 11). Suffixes are a letter or group of letters added to the ending of words to change their meaning or function. In this example, the verbal prefix a-and the pronominal prefix wa-are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. In contrast, the noun kitabu ‘book’ (a loanword from Arabic) is of noun class 7 (as indicated by the prefix ki- ) and both the numeral and the verb agreeing with it appear with the prefix ki- : It is … In Proto-Bantu and many modern Bantu languages this class also contains several normal nouns, with plurals in class 6. The speaker's mental lexicon includes the entire word, including the class prefix, which is usually enough to determine the class and therefore the concords as well. In (7b) with NC stems, however, the nasal is found on the noun in isolation as well as in the possessive construction demonstrating conclusively that the N is not a prefix. Anyhow, in time lexemes might change their class belonging and … What follows is a brief outline of the contents and functionings of the various classes. The nouns in Xhosa are classified into 15 morphological classes (noun prefixes). While this sounds like a lot, there is a system to it that makes the process much easier. Classes 1 to 10 are pairs of singular and plural; with the odd numbered classes being singular followed by their plural complement (i.e. Often, when the prefix of a noun whose stem begins with a vowel (and is not derived from a vowel verb stem) is obscured by various phonological processes, prefix compounding may occur (instead of the usual prefix substitution) when forming plurals, or even in the singular itself. The class prefix is ho- and comes from original Proto-Bantu *ku-. [mʊt͡sʼʷɑl̩lɛ] Motswalle ('friend'), in class 1, has an irregular plural in class 4 — [mɪt͡sʼʷɑl̩lɛ] metswalle. [8] These may be used syntactically as normal nouns with abstract meanings. The strongest trend (which is basically a rule) is that all class 1 nouns are human, and non-human nouns that begin with the mo- prefix are therefore in class 3 (in fact, there are no human class 3 nouns in Sesotho). Here's the word you're looking for. Many class 5 words in Sesotho come from the original Proto-Bantu *. The prefix is formed by adding di- to the full class 9 noun or adding di[N]- to the class 5 noun stem. Even if they begin with the ambiguous class prefix mo-, nouns denoting non-human entities cannot be in class 1. For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Luganda sentence formation bases on 10 noun classes with a prefix for singular and plural. Others, such as lelapa (family/home) are often rendered without the prefix even when not followed by any prefixes ("at my/the home" is always lapeng). This page was last edited on 19 August 2018, at 22:50. Most foreign acquisitions end up here (it is the "default class"[7]). This is prefixed to the verbal complex without the subjectival concord or certain verbal auxiliary infixes. A typical ( not atypical) example involves the words fortune (a noun) and fortunate (an adjective). The class prefix is le- and comes from original Proto-Bantu *di- as well as Proto-Bantu *du- (class 11, the "long-thin" class[5]). Sesotho nouns signify concrete or abstract concepts in the language, but are distinct from the Sesotho pronouns. Common prefixes are un, in, ex, re, dis & mis. [3] Most languages have these first ten classes, though there are many where some of the classes 1 to 10 are missing. Note that the class 5 noun [lɪfɑt͡sʰɪ] lefatshe ('earth') is formed from this noun through prefix compounding. In (7b) with NC stems, however, the nasal is found on the noun in isolation as well as in the possessive construction demonstrating … What is the noun for prefix? For example, all class 1 nouns are humans and verbal agents, most class 1a nouns are proper names and kinship terms, etc. Every part of speech in Sesotho which is somehow connected with a noun (either by qualifying it, associating it with an action or state, or standing in its place in an utterance) needs to be brought into agreement with the noun. Additionally, apart from these singular/plural pairings, Proto-Bantu is also reconstructed to have paired *9/10, *11/10, *12/13, *14/6, *15/6, and *20/22. Generally, agents are formed in classes 1 and 7 by adding the prefix and changing the final vowel to /i/ i, while impersonal nouns are formed in several classes by adding the prefix and changing the final vowel to /ɔ/ o: There are, however, some impersonal nouns which end with i. de-reverse or change. prefixation (anatomy) The state or condition of being prefixed. processing translated sentences (with segmentation) and . noncitizen, non-violence), adjectives (e.g. Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. The prefix for fortune is mis, while un precedes fortunate. Here are some common adjectives whose noun forms are made by adding -ness: happy: sad: weak: good : ready: tidy: forgetful: … Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. The forms in (7a) show that the noun class prefix is deleted when a noun is followed by the possessive pronoun. 1: m tu: m zuri: a-/ yu-* ha-/ hayu-* wa: w angu: 2: wa tu: wa zuri: wa-hawa-wa: w angu: 3: m ti: m zuri: u-hau-wa: w angu: 4: mi ti: mi zuri: i-hai-ya: y angu: 5 * Ø-jina * Ø-zuri: li-hali-la: l angu: 6: ma jina: ma zuri: ya-haya-ya: y angu: 7: ki tu: ki zuri: ki-haki-cha: ch angu: 8: vi tu: vi zuri: vi-havi-vya: vy angu: 9 ** n dizi: n zuri: i-hai-ya: y angu: 10 ** n dizi: n zuri: zi-hazi-za: z angu: 11: u … In Bantu languages. Class 9 (the "inanimate/animal" class[5]) is rather miscellaneous in content. All nonce nouns were given the noun class prefix i-, which is ambiguous between class 5 . Some historical words, such as letsie (locust), have completely lost their singular prefixes (and, in the case of tsie, ended up in class 9). The class prefix is di- (without nasalization) and comes from original Proto-Bantu *bî-. this/these. Note that in isiZulu the "default class" is class 5 since most native polysallabic class 5 words in that language have no prefix (just a lengthened pre-prefix/augment. Gender is a polysemous term, and this may be a source of confusions and misunderstandings. It begins with the prefix pre-( which means ‘before’. Though class membership is ultimately determined by morphology (the class prefix and the noun's concords) and not semantics, it is obvious from comparing the class contents of various languages that there are some tentative semantic trends. de-classify, decontaminate, demotivate. Infinitives denoting a negative meaning are formed by inserting an infix[9] -se- after the prefix and changing the final vowel to ⟨e⟩. We follow the Bantuist convention of referring to … Generally, the augments harmonise with the (inherent) vowel in the prefix (e.g. The primary noun occurs mainly in the subject “slot” of a declarative … Noun prefixes come in two varieties: the full noun prefix and the basic noun prefix. For example, all class 1 nouns are … The most common nouns are derived from attaching these morphological class prefixes to verb roots. Class 6 (the "liquid masses" class[5]) contains the plurals of class 5 nouns as well as the plurals of many class 1 nouns, class 9 nouns ("quantitive plurals"), and all class 14 nouns which may assume plurals. For a native Shona speaker, in the Shona language, the pattern of noun classes is natural, in the same way a French speaker is accustomed to feminine and masculin nouns in the … In isiZulu, nouns are made up of two parts: a prefix and a root. The class prefix is se- and comes from original Proto-Bantu *ki-. noun class prefix based morphological fo rms as p art of the . The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. Also, [mʊʀɛnɑ] morena ('king'), has a plural in class 6. Qualificatives can be used to derive abstract nouns in class 14 by prefixing bo-. The basic noun prefix begins with a consonant and is followed … subject concord. However, later changes during the evolution of the language have sometimes caused the loss of the second vowel, and sometimes the consonant as well: the class 1 prefix umu-added to the stem -fana (“ boy ”) yields umfana rather than *umufana. Names of mothers, fathers, married women and men (in a system of [hʊɬɔnɪpʰɑ] ho hlonepha prohibiting the use of nouns sounding like the names of certain family members), and initiated boys and girls may be formed from other nouns and proper names with the prefixes mma- (or just ma-) and ra- meaning "mother of" and "father of" respectively (though initiates often get prefixes of the opposite sex, ma- for boys and ra- for girls). The names are very rough labels often applied to the specific singular classes in the literature of many of the languages. This is the British English definition of prefix.View American English definition of prefix.. Change your default dictionary to American English. Many Sesotho nouns (and other parts of speech) stem from contact with speakers of Indo-European languages, primarily French missionaries, Orange Free State Afrikaners, and, in modern times, English people. A class 2 noun like abafundi would have its initial vowel a- lexicalizing the augment head, while the –ba- part of the prefix would be confined to the B-layer of (13). Some words may even end up in a different class. As a rule, the tonal structure of the class prefix has a /HH sequence of tones. In standard Sesotho, the prefix appears as mm- before stems beginning with b. Prefix: Negation-a (of) Poss. The form of the Setswana productive class 17 prefix is irregular, as the historical sound shifts should have resulted in go instead. Often, when the prefix of a noun whose stem begins with a vowel (and is not derived from a vowel verb stem) is obscured by various phonological processes, prefix compounding may occur (instead of the usual prefix substitution) when forming plurals, or even in the singular itself. The class prefix is a high tone bo- and comes from original Proto-Bantu *bo-. What follows is only a brief and incomplete overview. The class prefix is mo-[11] and comes from Proto-Bantu *mu- (denoting close or internal positions). Class 15 exclusively contains verb infinitives and gerunds. Definition of prefix_1 noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Noun Class Prefix Questionnaire – version 1.3 (prepared by Tarald Taraldsen in collaboration with Ken Safir) Introduction: This questionnaire is designed to elicit an inventory of the noun class affixes in your language and to detect patterns in the morphology of these affixes and to identify the forms For all these bases it has a class … Except for class 1a (which has a "null prefix"), nouns are composed of a noun prefix[1] and a stem (which may in turn be derived from other parts of speech; see below under Derivation). The class prefix is fa-[11] and comes from original Proto-Bantu *pa- (denoting near positions). Adding non- to the word ‘sense’ gives you the word ‘nonsense’, which means words that have no meaning. Noun Classes 11 to 13, and 19 to 23 do not occur in Sesotho, but do occur in other Bantu languages (isiZulu has class 11, Silozi has Classes 11, 12, and 13, etc. Class: Noun: Adj. In idiomatic speech, the le- of class 5, the se- of class 7, and the di- of classes 8 and 10 are sometimes not rendered when the noun is followed by the appropriate concords. possessive. For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. though there are some languages in which the vowel of the augment is weakened (lowered), thus resulting in forms such as class 1. Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. Since the noun is formed by modifying the already modified class 9 stem (with the addition of Proto-Bantu prefix *dî-) this class is sometimes called 9a instead. All these irregularities with the plurals naturally lead to a system where each class is treated as a separate gender, instead of alternatives where the first twelve classes are grouped into six genders. Some words may even end up in a different class. There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. It also shows the agreement between the subject and the verb (subject concord, SC) referring to the specific noun class.1 The noun class is indicated by arabic numbers. Up until class 10, the plural class for class n is class n + 1 (where n is odd). However, the. They are no longer productive in Sesotho (they cannot accept new nouns) but they are productive in many other Bantu languages. UC Berkeley Phonetics and Phonology Lab Annual Report (2016) 188 If taken to be part of the root, … As mentioned above, noun classes in Bantu languages are defined in part by the formal marking of the noun (its class prefix), and in part by the association between a set of nouns on the one hand, and a set of `agreement markers' affixed to possessive pronouns, verb stems, etc., on the other. With monosyllabic stems the tone of the stem is raised as well. OTJIHERERO NOUNS Otjiherero has a noun class system familiar from Bantu languages, where nouns are typically formed by combining a nominal stem with a noun class prefix and an augment or pre-prefix. nondetachable, non-violent), and open-class adverbs (e.g. Quite a substantial number of class 1 words have their plurals in class 6. Compare the following words in Sesotho and Setswana: Basically, the class 16, 17, and 18 prefixes are high toned but become low when they are immediately followed by a high syllable. Agents derived from passive verbs often use the full passive suffix -uwa, and never change the final vowel: A rich source of nouns are nominal compounds formed (somewhat irregularly) from other parts of speech and even complete sentences. possessive pronoun. class. In this paper, we discuss these instances of multiple prefixes and show that the presence of multiple prefixes depends on the one hand on the difference between inflectional use of noun classes (that is, … I can’t believe you think that. The noun toto ‘child’ is of noun class 1 (as indicated by the prefix m-) and the numeral agreeing with it appears with the prefix m-, while the verb agreeing it appears with the prefix a-. Class 1a (the "kin" class[5]) has exactly the same concords as class 1, but differs from it in the lack of prefix. For a native Shona speaker, in the Shona language, the pattern of noun classes is natural, in the same way a French speaker is accustomed to feminine and masculin nouns in the … The following is a list of noun suffixes for practicing spelling, along with their meanings and examples. izinja ‘the/some dogs’, will attach i- to the augment and have –zi-N- lexicalizing heads within the B-layer.

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