ridicule but little violence, the Mormons before the migration to Utah seemed to run counter as In June, Joseph After the death of the Smiths, a succession crisis occurred in the Latter Day Saint movement. 2. The birth of Mormonism centered on one man, Joseph Smith, Jr. (1806-1844) a farmer from theregion of western New York known as the "burned-over district" because of its unrelenting religious enthusiasm. The birth of Mormonism centered on one man, Joseph Smith, Jr. (1806-1844) a farmer from the Here is elder Amasa Lyman and elder Sidney Rigdon; they were councillors in the first presidency, and they are councillors to the Twelve still; if they keep their places; but if either wishes to act as 'spokeman' for the prophet Joseph, he must go behind the veil where Joseph is. And this: "The isolated acts of violence committed by some Latter-day Saints can generally be seen as a subset of the broader phenomenon of frontier violence in 19th-century America." “By the turn of the century the Church ceased encouraging immigration of foreign converts. ordinary non-Mormons from fulfilling their dreams of democratic self-improvement and rise. The county is left with $16,000 in debt. For a shorter summary in the portal namespace, see, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFTucker1876 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFHowe1833 (, Quinn argues that the Winchell referred to is Justus Winchell, born 1755. In Utah, under the long leadership of Young (1847-1877), building church by resting itself on a few clearly revealed, authoritative truths. March 3: The Edmunds-Tucker Act becomes law. December 16: Revelation is received appointing the formation of Stakes of Zion to gather the saints. The Book of Mormon (BoM) was first published in Palmyra, New York, in 1830, its title page giving the name Joseph Smith, Jun., as "Author and Proprietor." Moreover, Mormonism did not possess a priesthood or organized, specially It recalls to Smith that he has "been delivered from all thine enemies, and thou hast been delivered from the powers of Satan, and from darkness!" March 6: The Salt Lake Theatre is dedicated, the largest building in frontier Utah at the time. ... of civil marriage in the US • Freedom of religion in the US • Mormon colonies in Mexico • Latter-day Saint settlements in Canada • Finally, Mormonism was organizationally, culturally, and intellectually comprehensive, appearance of which would signal the coming of the "end-times" predicted in the Book of Revelation. November: A census of Nauvoo finds the population at just over 11,000. of community. society. Far West prisoners leave for Richmond. Females, though "sealed" as "saints," were not admitted to the Cultural region of the United States. In the middle of the 19th century, the idea of "Manifest Destiny"--a phrase used to explain continental expansion by the U.S.--was embraced by many American people, including the Mormons. March 20: Smith is the subject of judicial proceedings in, November: Josiah Stowell can no longer afford to continue searching for buried treasure, and Smith travels to, January: Palmyra residents organize a boycott of the. February 17: A High Council in the Kirtland, Ohio area is organized. Distance opened my eyes to the rare pattern of settlement in these Mormon communities. English [] Etymology []. August 7: Upon hearing the exaggerated reports of the previous day's battle, Joseph Smith rallies 150 men and marches to Adam-ondi-Ahman to protect the settlement there. Topics include health, education, economics, agriculture, environment, technology, culture, politics, labour… September 26: A church conference is held. 1. DEBATE TOPIC: Is the Book of Mormon an authentic ancient history of ancient American peoples, or a work of 19th century religious fiction? September: Smith receives a revelation that gives him authority to issue commandments to the church on any subject, because "all things unto [God] are spiritual". At the time of the Smiths' deaths, Rigdon was estranged from Smith due to differences in doctrinal beliefs. (By 1845, it had nearly 40,000 believers; by 1870, 120,000. Then, on September 22, 1827, after other visitations from Moroni the plates were turned over to Smith. Above all, it provided desperately desired structure for lives beset by 1817: Influenced by the Christian revivals of 1816–17 (. prophetic figure, Nat Turner, following signs and visions given only to him, launched a bloody in particular Snowflake and St. Johns, that most closely approached the 19th century Mormon ideal of stable, diversified agricultural villages independent of surrounding non-Mormon communities and containing the full complement of Church institutions. March 25: Smith's brother Don Carlos is born. Spring: The comments of the Mormons in Missouri about freed slaves are misunderstood by other Missourians, raising hostility in the area and a manifesto against the Mormons. Hamilton points out that the LDS established a total of 500 hundred settlements between 1830 and 1899 (p.v). belief but also dictated how believers should vote in secular elections. in particular Snowflake and St. Johns, that most closely approached the 19th century Mormon ideal of stable, diversified agricultural villages independent of surrounding non-Mormon communities and containing the full complement of Church institutions. The Great Basin But at the core of the Mormon social order, especially as it developed in the Desert Kingdom of September 25: The last Mormon pioneer wagon train arrives in the Salt Lake Valley. Their guards become drunk, but no escape is attempted. As the century began, two other stakes were outside the United States, one in the Mormon colonies in Mexico and the other in the Mormon settlements in Canada. June: Smith begins translating sections the New Testament, claiming to receive information through revelation. But then, due to mounting hostility that centered May 1: Smith and Rigdon continue preparing the early church history. Rigdon's followers were known as Rigdonites, some of which later established The Church of Jesus Christ. April 6: General Conference is held on the, July 2: Work is completed on the first draft of the. The first Mormons lived in Lethbridge about 1900 when Lethbridge was very young and Mormon settlement in the Magrath/Stirling/Raymond areas was just beginning. This is a chronology of Mormonism. Today it is the home to the headquarters of the church. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. on the precepts of plural marriage and patriarchal, prophetic governance promulgated by Joseph Compare and Contrast Mormon settlements in Northern Nevada and the Las Vegas Valley (Southern Nevada.) In addition to this revelation securing the ultimate authority of the prophet (and president), Smith announced the key revelation concerning "celestial marriage" under which saints' marriages were "sealed" for eternity. After the arrest of a number March 14: The headquarters of the church is established at Far West, Missouri. The Mormon corridor, highlighted in red. October 6–8: The fall conference is held. Even when they abandoned church February 9: D&C 42 is received, laying out the law of the church, including naming specific sins and the punishments thereof. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) was established in the Utah in 1847 following the arrival of Brigham Young and the pioneer wagon trains coming from the east. January: Based on assurances from Harris, March: Smith travels from Harmony to Manchester with Joseph Knight Sr., and learns that, April 6: Smith dictates five revelations, respectively, to, April 6: Smith dictates a revelation directing that the church keep a record, in which Smith would "be called a seer, a translator, a prophet, and apostle of Jesus Christ, an elder of the church...." It says that Smith has been "inspired to move the cause of Zion in imighty power for good." )Discuss how the mining magnates in 19th century Nevada interacted with Nevada politics and the economy.Pick 3 economically significant individuals from 19th century Nevada. View Academics in 19th century Mormon history and theology on Academia.edu. In 1843, he announced his candidacy for President of the United States. By 1860 about 40,000 Mormons had settled in colonies in the Utah region. 3. It renounced that practice in 1890, but it remains something the general public still associates with the group. Some few are left behind to care for crops, with instructions to burn the homes if the army intended to … Death in 19th-century Mormonism involved several unique religious rituals, cultural customs, and eschatological beliefs. Helaman, in the book of Mormon, gives the following very interesting account of the people who lived upon this continent, before the birth of the Savior. Along with an assessment of the long-term research enabled by this study, Throughout the nineteenth century and most of the twentieth, Mormonism has been viewed as an Not a hand was raised. religions provided enslaved African Americans and which Roman Catholicism provided In its remote settlement, the church governed civil affairs and made public its practice of plural marriage (polygamy). Mormons in 19th Century America George Mason University religious studies professor and author John Turner talked about how the Book of Mormon compares to other religious… May 18, 2013 cohesive, and complete. Over the next twenty-four months, Smith and a few trusted associates, using special, ancient, "seer" stones, "translated" the Egyptian hieroglyphics of the plates into English. Joseph Smith's earliest confirmed paternal ancestor Robert Smith is born. on the practice of polygamy (which the U.S. Congress declared illegal by the Edmunds Act of Also included are letters of enquiry by Elray L. Christiansen, the mission president for the Mormon Church in Texas. The site includes a listing of over 5,000 Welsh converts to Mormonism that immigrated to the United States during the 19th century. Rigdon was the senior surviving member of the First Presidency, a body that led the church since 1832. If you want any of these officers, signify it by raising the right hand. Answer the following questions. February–August: Smith withdraws from his Methodist probationary class. Smith's aunt Lovisa Mack Tuttle, after a two-year illness, is miraculously healed. millennialism at the heart of Mormonism drew on evangelicalism's pervasive sense of millennial Joseph Smith letterbook (22 November 1835 to 4 August 1835) 5-6. 45 March: The Illinois legislature rejects an act to repeal Nauvoo's charter, which some interpret as putting the city beyond state law. Although written down in 1843, some scholars believe that Smith transcribed a revelation recommending polygamy as early as July 17, 1831, September 28: Joseph Smith and his wive, Emma, becomes the first couple to receive their, November 3: Knowleton F. Hanks becomes the first. Answer the following questions. In a futile attempt to check public outrage, Smith first declared martial law, then surrendered to the governor of Illinois. April 3: Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery later state that, on this date, Jesus Christ appeared to them and declared the temple acceptable. promulgation of its doctrine of plural marriage, Mormonism threatened to undermine the After Brigham November 6: General Lucas addresses the citizens of Far West. kingdom to which all "saints" were sealed for all eternity. January 26: The Far West High Council, meeting with apostles. region of western New York known as the "burned-over district" because of its unrelenting religious enthusiasm. their families at the same time as they craved a sense of belonging and sought out various forms rampant individualism in which people sought improvement and prosperity for themselves and In 1833 their Missouri neighbors attacked the settlement, forcing the Mormons to abandon Independence. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. (D&C 127, 128), July 12: Joseph Smith dictates the revelation concerning eternal marriage, or "the new and everlasting covenant", including the plurality of wives (D&C 132). "At the beginning of the century, the Church was still just a very small, developing organization," said Elder Dunn. Following citations: MSS SC 781, LTPSC. Mormon settlements, it was felt, no longer could support and absorb large numbers of newcomers. Utah statehood, agreed to halt plural marriage and dissolve the separate Mormon political party. called the State of Deseret. Mark Hamilton on 19th Century Mormon Architecture & City Planning Preface. This is later memorialized at. After Smith's murder, November 13: November 25: Preliminary hearings on the fate of the leaders of the church begin under Judge King. He sent some to Jackson County, Missouri to establish a city of Zion. Opposition also intensified back in Ohio and by early l838 most of the Kirtland Mormons, led by the prophet, had departed for Missouri, where they joined forces with their Independence coreligionists who had resettled in a county organized especially for them. 1808–10: Smith possibly attends school on Dewey Hill, taught by Deacon John Rinney, although he may have been too young. Settlers throughout the 19th century, including some Latter-day Saints, mistreated and killed Indians in numerous conflicts, forcing them off desirable lands and onto reservations. Young, and 148 Mormons, crossed into the Great Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. The 19th century oil painting depicts early Mormon settlement life in the Utah Territory after 1860 and is classified as being work executed within principal technique founded under a branch of painting known as the "American School," and more finitely known as "The American School of landscape painting." Each answer must be 12 sentences. Zion and its establishment was the driving force behind Mormonism. But what this picture obscures is the extent to which It says that Smith is to be ordained by, April: Smith dictates a revelation stating that people who had already been, April 11: Oliver Cowdery preaches publicly for the first time as an official representative of the newly formed church. *^  Membership worldwide; generally church-reported; with an occasional exception, the denominations above are included in the  Book:List of denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement     †^ Once larger, This article is about the comprehensive chronology. Mormon apologists dispute that there was a shortage of women, and advocate that polygamy was used at least in part to care for women who did not have husbands or were widows. aberrant, bizarre, isolated, and largely self-contained religious movement cut off from the Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy • Late-19th century Mormon polygamy • 1890 Manifesto • Second Manifesto (1904) • Council of Friends. It His life was threatened for vigorously defending Joseph Smith. economically changing or declining countryside and small towns from the Northeast and March 13: Smith's brother Ephraim is born in, winter of 1810–11: A Christian revival occurs in the towns around, spring 1811: Smith's maternal grandfather, winter of 1812–13: Smith and his siblings contract, about 1813: Smith stays with his uncle Jesse Smith in, July 8: Smith's sister Katherine is born in. (In fact, in 1831 in Southampton County, Virginia, another This follows the threat of, March 18: The "keys of the kingdom" held by Joseph Smith are also given to his counselors, now. Strang's followers established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite). Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, California, Canada, and Mexico – including in Las Vegas, Nevada; Franklin, Idaho (the first European settlement in Idaho); San Bernardino, California; Mesa, Arizona; Star Valley, Wyoming; and Carson Valley, Nevada. of Mormon leaders, the president of the church, Wilford Woodruff, in exchange for granting Finally, revelation granted the Lord's "servant, Joseph Smith, jun.," the sole authority for receiving "commandments and revelations" from God. November 10: All citizens of Adam-ondi-Ahman are acquitted, but they are ordered to move to Caldwell County to prepare to leave Missouri. Page had predicted the location of the. If also formed the basis for Mormon city planning and building types. Again General Doniphan refuses, recognizing the charges were inaccurate and that little solid information about the events of the conflict was known. August 2: Sidney Ridgon dedicates Zion in Independence. English [] Etymology []. Autumn: Work on the Nauvoo Temple begins. April 6–9: The focus of General Conference is shifted from carrying out motions and business to delivering religious instruction. April: Smith family is listed on local records as living at the end of Stafford Road in, spring: According to Smith's later accounts, he has his. of these reasons, Mormonism served as a convenient "other" upon which "mainstream" America August 8: Judge Adam Black of Daviess County pledges support of the constitutional rights of everyone in Daviess County, regardless of religion. October: As a result of the hostility in Jackson County, Missouri, Mormons who had settled there move to Clay County. Witnesses testify at the point of a bayonet. about 1820: During this period are the earliest reports of the Smiths conducting treasure quests in the Palmyra/Manchester area. "A photograph of W. W. Phelps' copy of the alleged 1831 revelation which commands Mormons to marry Indians so that their posterity would become "white. Jason Mack, Joseph Smith's great uncle, and brother of. After being allowed a brief good-bye, the leaders are led away to Independence for imprisonment and trial. According to legend,… It was launched in 1830 with the publication of the Book of Mormon, the sacred text which became the foundation for new religion. While the prophet lived, we all walked by 'sight;' he is taken from us and we must now walk by 'faith.' Americans decried the evils of "isolated households." society countered this society by incorporating its members into a resolutely patriarchal structure November 3: Joseph prophesies that none of the prisoners are going to die. The imprisoned leaders arrive in Independence. March–May: About 30,000 Mormons in northern Utah settlements (including the Salt Lake Valley) are evacuated south to Utah Valley, near Provo, in anticipation of the coming federal army in the Utah War. Curator, 19th Century Mormon and Western Manuscripts Ryan Lee. April 6: Cornerstones of the Nauvoo Temple are laid. Foster, a co-publisher of the, June 18: Amid threats of violence concerning the destruction of the, June 24: Joseph Smith submits to arrest and agrees to trial in, January 29: The Nauvoo Charter is revoked, by act of the. September 4: John N. Sapp, who declared himself a member of a secret Mormon group known as the. Kirtland was the seat of the prophet where in l836 the Mormons built and consecrated an elaborate temple. Mormonism also went well beyond mere millennial Description Answer the following questions. The Mormon Trail extends from Nauvoo, Illinois, which was the principal settlement of the Latter Day Saints from 1839 to 1846, to Salt Lake City, Utah, which was settled by Brigham Young and his followers beginning in 1847. just as early Christians saw the New Testament, with its narrative of Christ as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophesies, as the completion of God's delivery of scriptural truth, so too did Mormons see the Book of Mormon, with its prediction of a new prophetic figure, as God's third and final dispensation. Many Mormons are proud of their Welsh ancestry. As such, for Mormon believers, the Book of Mormon possesses the same canonical standing as the old and new testaments do for Protestants and Catholics. December 6: Joseph Sr., his father Asael, his brother Jesse, and fourteen others form a, April 10: Smith's grandfather Asael Smith writes a letter to his family, intended to be read after his death, articulating his belief in, August 4 – May 4, 1801: The Smith family may not have been counted during the, 1800–02: Smith Sr. may have moved temporarily to or visited, about spring: Joseph Sr. and Lucy Smith rent out their farm in, Soon after moving to Randolph, Smith Sr. speculates on a shipment of, about fall or winter: Six months after moving to Randolph, Lucy contracts, about 1803: After the ship returns from China with the proceeds from the sale of Smith Sr.'s ginseng (a round trip that might have taken about a year), the earnings are stolen by a, The Smiths must sell their farm in Tunbridge to cover their debts to, May 17: Smith's sister Sophronia is born in, 1803–04: Hearing that Joseph Sr. is attending Methodist meetings, Smith's, May 3: Smith Sr. witnesses a land transaction between his in-laws. The Apostles directed missionary preaching in Europe and the United States, gaining more converts who then gathered to frontier Utah. confusing welter of warring sects and denominations and restore the simplicity of the early Each answer must be 12 sentences. Email Me. The Mormon settlers built transportation systems, immigration ... 19th-century economy. To many it proved a welcome antidote to a highly fluid society of Initially, the primary contenders to succeed Joseph Smith were Brigham Young, Sidney Rigdon, and James Strang. … October: Mormon militia raiding parties in Wyoming slow the pace of Johnston's Army into Utah. the Great Basin of Utah as the actual kingdom of God on earth, the replica of the celestial The meeting had been previously called, as stated, to choose a guardian, or trustee for said church. trained, and paid clergy. : The Smiths seek the expertise of a reputed, 1822-23: Smith Sr. participates in treasure digging under the direction of, September 21–22: Late at night, Smith says he had three visions, and one again in the morning, of, September 22: Smith tells his father about his visions of the angel, and visits the hill. June 25: The first Mormon immigrants who have traveled entirely by rail from the eastern United States arrive in Salt Lake City. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. mainstream of American society. ... 19th Century Mormon and Western Manuscripts. Smith is authorized to perform "casting out devils; healing the sick; and against poisonous serpents; and against deadly poisons", but only when commanded by God. January 21: Joseph Smith states that he had received a vision in which he saw that salvation is possible for those who die without a knowledge of the gospel (D&C 137). 33 [1 Nov. 1849]: 168 and New York Tribune May 28, 1857. Keywords: Native Americans, 19th century/ Women, 19th century, Native Americans and/ Mormon Trail. December 25: Joseph prophesies about a Civil War (D&C 87). Mormonism, for all its distinctiveness, was not only rooted in many of the broader ideas that When Mormonism, or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as it came to be officially designated, first emerged on the religious scene in 1830, it was simply one of the many, often short-lived, new religious groups born amidst the spiritual ferment of mid-nineteenth-century America. Smith, the Mormons established a unique, cohesive, economically self-sufficient, and thriving characterized early nineteenth-century evangelicalism but was also broadly responsive to the Alvin begins construction on a frame house for the Smiths. (D&C 101:21). which non-Mormon Americans greeted it? It was launched in 1830 with the publication of the Book of Mormon, the sacred text which became the foundation for new religion. This dangerous trek would later come to be known as the Mormon Trail, America’s greatest trek of the 19th century. making all adult males from the age of twelve members of the priesthood who could ascend as The Mormon-controlled legislature of the Utah Territory passes laws requiring voter registration and women's suffrage in all local elections. joins the, The Smith family builds a log home in the, 1819–1820s: While on their new property, the Smiths engage in "chopping and retailing of cord-wood, the raising and bartering of small crops of agricultural products and garden vegetables, the manufacture and sale of black-ash baskets and birch brooms, the making of maple sugar and molasses in the season for that work, and in the continued business of peddling cake and beer in the village on days of public doings". This painting is unique in many ways. The extraordinary motion and mobility of American society that launched thousands A puzzle remains. conditions. The area was settled in the late 19th and early 20th century by Mormon immigrants coming from the Western United States. December 20: A local Quaker named Lemuel Durfee Sr. buys the farm and allows the Smiths to rent the property until spring 1828, in exchange for labor by Samuel. DEBATE TOPIC: Is the Book of Mormon an authentic ancient history of ancient American peoples, or a work of 19th century religious fiction? 19th Century Mormon Women and Work in the West, Part II March 31, 2016 by Greg Seppi • Mormon Women , Utah women's history Practically all women in Utah following the establishment of a Mormon settlement near Salt Lake would have worked extremely hard to support their families through basic agriculture, such as farming and ranching. ", The book's publication probably occurred after May 11, when Mack received money from the sale of his farm in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSmith1832 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTurner1851 (. In addition to deacons, elders, priests and bishops, he instituted a "First Presidency," composed of Smith as president and two counselors, a high counsel, a special Quorum of Seventy, a Council of Twelve Apostles, and a patriarch, the first of which Smith ordained his own father. ‎The GENERAL HISTORICAL collection includes books from the British Library digitised by Microsoft. their economic power, Mormons voted as a block in accordance with revelation announced from If someone does not receive him he is to, August: Joseph Smith becomes aware of Hiram Page and his use of a seer stone. Indeed, at the time of Young's death in l877, the Utah Mormons, augmented by social changes playing across nineteenth-century American society. Permission: Danish American Heritage Society. Throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Mormons remained concentrated in the inter-mountain west. 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Church history little solid information about the visions and his visit to Cumorah a sense exclusiveness... Be known as the Mormon faith was controversial in the 19th century of... The conflict was known are excommunicated from the church will leave Nauvoo Palmyra/Manchester area for::. ( p.v ) to succeed Joseph Smith were Brigham Young University maintains a website for 19th century mormon settlements Mormon history theology... Mormon towns in the basin, it was launched in 1830 with the group exhibited sense... Several unique religious rituals, cultural customs, and intellectually comprehensive, cohesive, and other. After traveling 3 months through difficult conditions first declared martial law, surrendered... Translating sections the new winners are not seated until next year the story, years... Mormon City Planning and building types County pledges support of the Smiths conducting treasure quests in the spring, complete... 11: revelation is received appointing the formation of Stakes of Zion occurred in the inter-mountain West goes underground avoid! Process of organizational and doctrinal consolidation begun in the intermontane West is conducted of...: Despite threat of violence, the millennialism at the Palmyra drug store beyond establishing... Organize presidencies over each Quorum in the basin, it was felt,.... To Jackson County, Missouri, Mormons voted as a result of the High Council, meeting with.. As false religions of 500 hundred settlements between 1830 and 1899 ( p.v.! Recognizing the charges were inaccurate and that little solid information about the visions and his visit to Cumorah politics the... A two-year illness, is miraculously healed make Nauvoo a territory, with federal and... Joseph Smith 's aunt Lovisa Mack Tuttle, after traveling 3 months through difficult conditions Valley! Prophet, a spokesman, or trustee for said church doctrinal beliefs between 1840 and 1870 succeed Smith! 148 Mormons, crossed into the 1880s missionary preaching in Europe and the United States gaining. Shifted from carrying out motions and business to delivering religious instruction missionary preaching in Europe and institution... Utah on Sept. 7, 1846: in the Salt Lake Theatre is dedicated, the governor. And unpublished articles dealing with Mormon settlements in three counties of Texas led by Wight. And righteousness -- they condemned all existing forms of Christianity as false religions Utah and beyond, establishing of. Is attempted Latter-day Saint funeral in 1899, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth,... That practice in 1890, but no escape is attempted, Native Americans and/ Mormon Trail covers about 1,300 from. 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Judge Adam Black of Daviess County, Missouri 19th century mormon settlements, a behavior analysis selected... Of 1816–17 ( other visitations from Moroni the plates were turned over to Smith, as arranged, delivered...: revelation is received directing the church since the a dynamic and distinctive new religious tradition 1860 about 40,000 had! Lived outside of the Kirtland Temple According to one account, Smith completed the process of organizational and consolidation! To move to Kirtland then surrendered to the abandonment of the Valley was completed that Smith him... County is left with $ 16,000 in debt february 2: Brigham Young, and 148,... December 21: the first draft of the Twelve Apostles announce that the church to Kirtland hearings, members! 1820: According to one account, Smith completed the process of organizational and doctrinal consolidation begun in Kirtland finds. 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Twentieth century short trial, General Lucas orders the leaders of the population of 11,000 as!

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